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Brie, ed. London: K. Thomas and I. Thornley London: George W. Jones, , 92; J. Gairdner, ed.
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Camden Society, new series 17 London: Camden Society, , Kingsford, ed. View all notes Given that early modern transcriptions of the now lost wardrobe book of Walter Wetwang show that in Edward III needed approximately ships to transport an army of 14, men, the most reliable estimate for the fleet is the ships given by the chronicler Jehan Waurin. Hardy, eds. Rolls Series 39 London: Longmans, —91 , 2: On the fleet, see Lambert, Shipping , Chapter 3. View all notes Of course, the ships referred to by the London Chronicle could have related to the size of the English contingent within the fleet, but the author does not explicitly say he is discussing the numbers of English ships.
View all notes We are told that one reason for trusting the chronicles is because one of them, the author of the Gesta Henrici quinti, was an eyewitness.
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Edward M. Rolls Series 93 London: H. View all notes It is argued here that the account of the fleet size in the Gesta should be dismissed as a man trying to convey the scale of the operation that lay before his eyes. Exaggeration was not new. Thompson, , and E. Thompson, ed. View all notes Thomas Basin stated that the fleet that took the duke of Somerset to Cherbourg in numbered ships, whereas the more reliable payroll tells us it was Flete was later replaced on 4 April by Curteys.
In April Cliderowe and 10 other people were granted permission to travel freely around Holland conducting their business: see Allmand, Henry V , These sums have been used to estimate the size of the foreign fleet, but not all expenditure has been noted and neither have the terms of the ship hire been fully understood. For example, Juliet Barker estimates that these sums hired ships, but Barker did not notice all the payments and assumed the money was used solely for the purpose of hiring vessels. View all notes We also do not know if the February and April payments were for two fleets, or two instalments for one fleet.
It could be that the hiring of foreign ships followed the principles set out in the recruitment of land troops. View all notes In the s, the crown hired its own ships out under the terms of a whole-ship charter, in which each vessel with its crew was hired for a specified period. View all notes In , this practice does not seem to have been followed and the payments make it clear that monies for hire and wages were paid in separate instalments.
In effect English officials took just over three months to hire the foreign ships. View all notes Ton-tight was implemented by the English crown in in response to parliamentary petitions from shipowners who asked the king to pay them monetary compensation to cover the costs of ship requisition.
View all notes Under the terms, the king agreed to pay each shipowner 3 s. Yet this is not so certain. It is true that in the October Parliament the Commons asked the king to pay 3 s. In the Commons had asked for 3 s. Thus in the Commons may have asked for an increase to 3 s. PROME , 7: 51; and 8: View all notes It is likely that the foreign crews began their service in mid-May when the Cinque Ports crews were paid to escort the foreign contingent to Southampton.
Indeed, we know that the foreign ships were to be made ready at Winchelsea, London or Sandwich by 8 May.
In order to move beyond the length of service and estimate the size of the foreign contingent we need to know the rate at which Henry hired the ships. While the crown paid English shipowners 2 s. Henry had no prerogatives of requisition for foreign ships and their hire costs were probably greater than the rates he paid in England. In and Henry hired foreign ships at the rate of 3 s.
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The records relating to the service of hired foreign ships over show they averaged 57 tons. Using this average as a guide, 14, tons of shipping equates to ships. View all notes If the ships were smaller, more could have been sourced, but as Henry was hiring the ships he could afford to be selective. Occasionally smaller ships were hired by Henry. In to two ships from Dordrecht at 30 and 36 tons were hired.
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View all notes Smaller ships had the advantage of being able to sail up rivers and could be used more effectively in sieges of coastal towns. For the transport fleet of , for which the army needed transporting in one go, Henry would have sought to hire vessels over 40 tons. At this time mariners were paid 3 d. In all the money would have paid for the wages of approximately seafarers, which equates to 11 men per ship. View all notes These may seem small crew sizes, but it is worth noting that in ships of Gowe and Middleburgh hired by Henry at 60 tons were manned by eight men and those of tons by 11 men.
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Henry did not rely solely on hired ships and over the spring began the process of requisitioning English vessels. We can investigate the question of the number of English ships needed by Henry by looking at the size and composition of his army and comparing this with the transportation to France of earlier armies. With the addition of non-combatants there may have been close to 14, men requiring shipping.
The army of included at least men-at-arms and mounted archers and hobelars.
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View all notes In , mounted men, half of whom were men-at-arms, were shipped in vessels, which averaged just over 70 tons each. View all notes The evidence from earlier expeditions shows that to ship an army of 10, to 15, men required to ships. View all notes Given Henry had hired foreign ships his officials needed to requisition approximately ships from domestic ports.
The task of assembling several hundred ships began on 1 March when John Everdon was issued with 60 s. View all notes This payment preceded an order issued on 19 March to the admiral who was told to arrest all ships over 20 tons and have them at Southampton by 8 May. View all notes On 11 April, Nicholas Mauduyt, sergeant-at-arms, was ordered to seize all ships of the realm, including foreign vessels, from the mouth of the River Thames to Newcastle and have the English vessels sent to Southampton by 1 May.
View all notes To cover his expenses on 27 April Mauduyt was issued with 66 s. View all notes On 18 May John Barcelot was issued with 60 s. View all notes At the same time the king ordered the masters of seven royal ships to arrest mariners. Holmes, 4, part 2: View all notes In July, the process of gathering ships continued as John Acclane and John Scaldock were told to arrest all the ships in London over 20 tons.
View all notes We also know that John Everdon compiled a payroll — now lost — for the English fleet. View all notes Henry issued requisition orders in March, his officials received payments for their duties in March and April, and his transport fleet sailed in August. While the transport fleet was being assembled, preparations were also underway to put to sea several smaller flotillas to guard the coast and protect the gathering transport ships. View all notes In February , the Council put forward a more defined strategy to protect the gathering transport ships.
This involved three flotillas, each one given a specific area to cover.
maisonducalvet.com/cadiz-conocer-gente-por.php One, consisting of two ships at tons and two barges of tons, would protect the coast from Plymouth to the Isle of Wight. The second flotilla would patrol from the Isle of Wight to Orford with two barges of tons and two balingers, an oared vessel similar to, but probably smaller than, a barge. View all notes The third would cover the coast from Orford to Berwick with one barge and two balingers. Nicolas, ed. Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council of England , vol.
Related Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (3 of 12) Henrie I.
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